First aid,

Is immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid?

Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.

The avoidance of unnecessary movement and over-excitation of the victim often prevents further injury. The essentials of first aid treatment also include the correct bandaging of a wound; the application of splints for fractures and dislocations; the effective methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and artificial respiration; and treatment of shockfrostbitefainting, bites and stings, burns, and heat exhaustion.

Bites and Stings

Symptoms: Wound (animal or human bite) or swelling and pain (insect sting). Treatment: For animal and human bites, cleanse wound with soap and water and apply iodine containing antiseptic; submit animal for rabies test. For poisonous snakebite, cooling the site of the wound with ice will slow down absorption of poisons; antivenin treatment is required only for a small number of reptile bites. Prevent exertion and taking of stimulants by victim. For insect stings apply ointment, soothing lotions, or cool compress.


Symptoms: Redness (first-degree burns), blistering (second-degree burns), charring of skin (third-degree burns). Treatment: Cold water may be applied to first- and second-degree burns. All burns should be covered with sterile non-adherent dressings. Chemical burns should be washed with large quantity of water; vinegar may be added to the water for alkali burns, and sodium bicarbonate may be added to the water in case of acid burns.

Foreign Body in the Eye

Symptoms: Pain, redness, burning, tears. Treatment: Pull down lower lid and remove unembedded object with clean tissue if it lies on the inner surface of lower lid. If object has not been located, pull upper lid forward and down over lower lid. Object can be removed from surface of upper eyelid by turning lid back over a swab stick or similar object and lifting off the foreign body with a clean tissue. Finally, flush the eye with water. If object is suspected to be embedded, apply a dry, protective dressing over eye, and call physician or take patient to hospital emergency room. Keep victim from rubbing the eye. For chemical burns, flood eyes with water.

Fractures and Joint Injuries

Symptoms: Pain or tenderness, deformity of bones, swelling, discoloration. Treatment: Prevent movement of injured parts until splint is applied; treat for shock; if ambulance service is not available, splint entire limb before moving. For sprains, elevate affected part and apply cold compresses. Elastic bandages may be used for immobilization.


Symptoms and signs: Information from victim or observer, stains about mouth, presence of poison container, breath odour, and pupils contracted to pinpoint size from morphine or narcotics. Treatment: Dilute ingested poison by administering water or milk, administer specific antidote if described on label of commercial product. Do not induce vomiting if poison is strong acid, strong alkali, or petroleum product, or if victim is unconscious or convulsive. Syrup of Ipecac available without prescription at pharmacies may be administered to induce vomiting in other cases. A universal antidote contains Ipecac and activated charcoal; the latter absorbs the poison and the former causes it to be expelled.

Severe Bleeding

Symptoms: External wound. Treatment: Apply pressure over wound with wad of sterile gauze or other clean material. If bleeding continues and no fracture is present, elevate wound. If bleeding still continues, apply pressure to blood vessels leading to area—in arm, press just below armpit; in leg, press against groin where thigh and trunk join. Use a tight band that cuts off circulation only when it has been decided that the sacrifice of a limb is necessary to save life.


Symptoms: Pale (or bluish) skin (in victim with dark skin examine inside of mouth and nail beds for bluish coloration), cool skin, weakness, weak pulse; unresponsiveness and dilated pupils in later stages. Treatment: Keep victim lying down and covered enough to prevent loss of body heat. The body position should be adjusted according to the victim's injuries. Victims in shock may improve if the feet are raised 8 to 12 in. (20–30 cm). For electric shock, cut off current or separate victim from contact with electricity by using dry wood, rope, cloth, or rubber; administer CPR.


Treatment: Stop bleeding, cleanse wound with microbicidal solution and cover with sterile bandage.


Symptoms: High temperature (as high as 42-44 deg centigrade), hot dry skin, rapid pulse, possibly unconsciousness. Treatment: Immediately undress victim and sponge with or immerse in cool water or wrap in water soaked sheets. Use fan or air conditioner.


Symptoms: Unconsciousness, paleness, rapid pulse, coldness of the skin, sweating.  Treatment:  leave victim lying down, loosen clothing, roll victim to the side and wipe mouth in the event of vomiting.

List of Basic First Aid items in the specially designed jute bag ::

  • Disposable Sterile powder free EVA gloves
  • Sterile Dressing kit ( contains three chamber dressing tray, cotton balls, gauge dressing, adhesive tape, paper towel & forceps)
  • Adhesive Tape
  • Elastic Bandage Wrap for sprains and strains
  • Hixadine Antiseptic Solution
  • Scissors
  • Wooden Splints
  • Providone–Iodine Ointment
  • Renicol Eye Drops
  • Clinical Thermometer
  • Roll Bandage
  • Safety Pin
  • Alcohol Swabs for wound cleaning.
  • Medicated Band Aid for cuts.
  • Burn Cream
  • Ice Bag for cold compress.
  • Pain Spray

All items have been procured from reputed manufacturers and every effort has been made to source branded items only.

Assembled & Marketed by -



KOLKATA – 700029.

Phones – 65338741 / 32023943 / 64501124

E-Mail – abstracthealthcare@gmail.com

Website – www.abstracthealthcare.in

Wishing all a very safe, peaceful and happy 2014 !

The Abstract Team, Kolkata.


P-393, Purna Das Road, Kolkata
700029, India

Tel: +91 33 65338741/32023943/64501124
Email: abstracthealthcare@gmail.com

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